Psychedelic plants

Psychedelic plants – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Psychedelic plants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salvia divinorum, a psychedelic sage

Salvia divinorum, a psychedelic sage

Psychedelic plants are plants that contain psychedelic drugs. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes.



[edit] Cannabis

Cannabis plant

Cannabis plant

Main article: Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychedelic plant. Cannabis is also unique in that it contains a psychedelic substance, THC, which contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a disassociative drug. It is the weakest of the psychedelics but can produce vivid illusions at higher doses, similar to a low dose of a classic psychedelic such as psilocybin or LSD. Currently, certain universities and research firms are studying the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many US states such as California and many countries have created a Medical Cannabis law to allow patients to use cannabis as (among other things) a pain killer and appetite stimulant.

[edit] Plants containing psychedelic tryptamines

DMT Molecule in 2D

DMT Molecule in 2D

DMT Molecule in 3D

DMT Molecule in 3D

Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It can not simply be eaten, and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable, since the user needs to smoke all of it in a minute or else tolerance builds rapidly.


  • Fittonia albivenis, a common ornamental plant from South America. The plant has unknown compounds, that reportedly cause “visions of eyeballs.” It is also useful in the treatment of headaches, etc.
  • Justicia pectoralis, DMT in leaves[1]


  • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[2]


Delosperma acuminatum DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[3]
Delosperma cooperi DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[3]
Delosperma ecklonis DMT[3]
Delosperma esterhuyseniae DMT[3]
Delosperma hallii 5-MEO-DMT[3]
Delosperma harazianum DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[3]
Delosperma harazianum


Delosperma hirtum DMT[3]
Delosperma hallii

aff. litorale

Delosperma lydenbergense

Delosperma nubigenum
Delosperma pageanum DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[3]
Delosperma pergamentaceum Traces of DMT[3]
Delosperma tradescantioides DMT[3]

Apocynaceae family:

Fabaceae family (Leguminosae):

Caesalpinioideae (subfamily of Fabaceae) :

Acacia acuminata Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[7]

Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf[8]

Acacia angustissima
β-methyl-phenethylamine[9], NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[10]

Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids.[11] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[12]

Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[13]

Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman[8][14][15]
Acacia beauverdiana Psychoactive[16] Ash used in Pituri.[17]

Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[18]

Acacia catechu
DMT[3] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

Acacia caven
Acacia chundra DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei DMT[20]
Acacia complanata 0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[21][22][23]

Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[8] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[24]

Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive,[19] Tryptamines[25]

Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[8] and seeds.[12] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds[12]
Acacia cuthbertsonii Psychoactive[16]

Acacia decurrens
Psychoactive,[19] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[15]
Acacia delibrata Psychoactive[16]
Acacia falcata Psychoactive,[16] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[15]

Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[26] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[27] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[28] Alkaloids are present in the bark[29] and leaves.[30] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.[25]
Acacia floribunda Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[31] in flowers[12] other tryptamines,[32] phenethylamines[33]
Acacia georginae Psychoactive,[19] plus deadly toxins

Acacia horrida

Acacia implexa
Acacia jurema DMT, NMT

Acacia karroo
Acacia laeta DMT, in the leaf[8]

Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers,[31] 0.2% DMT in plant.[35] Histamine alkaloids.[15]
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark[12]
Acacia macradenia Tryptamine[12]

Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves[8]

Acacia mangium

Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf,[36] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[15]

Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf[8]

Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf[8]

Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia Tryptamine,[32] DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[34] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.[37]
Acacia oerfota Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[38][14] NMT
Acacia penninervis Psychoactive[16]

Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[8]

Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf,[8] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts[31]

Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf[8] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha ssp. campylacantha Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark[39]

Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, traces of amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[40]
Acacia sassa Psychoactive[19]

Acacia schaffneri
β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[41] Amphetamines and mescaline also found.[25]

Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[8] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[27] DMT in bark.[12]

Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf[8]

Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[42][8]

Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[34]
Acacia vestita Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[8] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[15]

Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines[32], 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[12]

List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled:[15]

0% \le C \le 0.02%, C…Concentration of Alkaloids [%]

Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems.[45] The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.[46]

Anadenanthera peregrina
Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina Bufotenine is in the seeds.[48]

Desmanthus illinoensis
0% – 0.34% DMT in root bark, highly variable.[49] Also NMT, N-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 2-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, and gramine (toxic).[50]

Desmanthus leptolobus
0.14% DMT in root bark, more reliable than D. illinoensis[49]
Desmodium caudatum[51]
(syn. Ohwia caudata )
Roots: 0.087% DMT,[52] Bufotenine-N-oxide 0.03%

Desmodium gangeticum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, whole plant, roots, stems, leaves[53]
Desmodium intortum Bufotentine, DMT[54]

Codariocalyx motorius
(syn. Desmodium gyrans)
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots[53]
Desmodium racemosum 5-MEO-DMT[53]
Desmodium triflorum 0.0004% DMT-N-oxide, roots,[52] less in stems[52] and trace in leaves.[52]

Lespedeza capitata

Lespedeza bicolor
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots[55]
Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark[53]
Mimosa ophthalmocentra Dried root: DMT 1.6%, NMT 0.0012% and hordenine 0.0065%[56]
Mimosa scabrella Tryptamine, NMT, DMT and N-methyltetrahydrocarboline in bark[57]
Mimosa somnians Trytamines and MMT

Mimosa tenuiflora
(syn. “Mimosa hostilis”)
0.31-0.57% DMT (dry root bark).[58]
Mimosa verrucosa DMT[59] in root bark

Mucuna pruriens
“The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa, Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT.”[60]
Petalostylis casseoides 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[55]
Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides DMT in leaves and stems[53]
Phyllodium pulchellum
(syn. Desmodium pulchellum)
0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT[55] DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT (dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers[53]

Family Fabaceae: Erythrina flabelliformis, other Erythrina species, seeds contain the alkaloids Erysodin and Erysovin[61]


Malpighiaceae family:

Myristicaceae (Nutmeg family):

Virola calophylla Leaves 0.149% DMT, leaves 0.006% MMT[53] 5-MeO-DMT in bark[63]
Virola callophylloidea DMT
Virola carinata DMT in leaves[53]
Virola cuspidata DMT[6]
Virola divergens DMT in leaves[53]

Virola elongata
(syn. Virola theiodora)
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves and flowers[53]
Virola melinonii DMT in bark[53]
Virola multinervia DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and roots[53]
Virola pavonis DMT in leaves[53]
Virola peruviana 5-MEO-DMT, traces of DMT and 5-MeO-tryptamine in bark[53]
Virola rufula Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT[64] 0.190% 5-MeO-DMT in bark,[53] 0.135% 5-MeO-DMT in root, 0.092% DMT in leaves.[53]
Virola sebifera The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.[65]
Virola surinamensis DMT[6] in bark[53]
Virola venosa DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves[53] DMT



Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts[55]

Poaceae family (Gramineae):

Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[66]

Species Alkaloids (Dried)

Arundo donax
0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT[67]

Phalaris aquatica
0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids,[68] 0.100% DMT,[69] 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT,[69]0.005% 5-OH-DMT[69]

Phalaris arundinacea
0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids[68]
Phalaris brachystachys Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed]

Phragmites australis
DMT in roots[53]

None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica.[68]



  • Punica granatum “DMT in root cortex;”[6] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[70]

Rubiaceae family:

Species Alkaloids (Dried)
Psychotria carthagenensis 0.2% average DMT in dried leaves[53]
Psychotria expansa DMT[6]
Psychotria forsteriana DMT[6]
Psychotria insularum DMT[6]

Psychotria poeppigiana [3]
Psychotria rostrata DMT[6]
Psychotria rufipilis DMT[6]

Psychotria viridis
DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.[71]

Rutaceae family:

Species Alkaloids (Dried)

Dictyoloma incanescens
5-MeO-DMT in leaves,[53][64] 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT in bark[55]
Dutaillyea drupacea > 0.4 % 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[53][34]
Dutaillyea oreophila 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[53]

Tetradium ruticarpum
(syn. Evodia rutaecarpa)
5-MeO-DMT in leaves,[53] fruit and roots
Limonia acidissima 5-MeO-DMT in stems[53]
Melicope leptococca 0.2% total alkaloids, 0.07% 5-MeO-DMT; 5-MeO-DMT in leaves and stems,[53] also “5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline”[5]
Pilocarpus organensis 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[53]
Vepris ampody Up to 0.2% DMT in leaves and branches[53][55]
Zanthoxylum arborescens DMT in leaves[53]
Zanthoxylum procerum DMT in leaves[53]


[edit] Other Indoles


[edit] Mescaline

Species Alkaloid Content (Fresh) Alkaloid Content (Dried)

Echinopsis lageniformis
(syn. Trichocereus bridgesii)
Mescaline > 0.025%,[72] also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%, tyramine < 1% 2%[73]

Echinopsis pachanoi
(syn. Trichocereus pachanoi)
Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average[74] Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[74]

Echinopsis spachiana
(syn. Trichocereus spachianus)
Mescaline[75] Mescaline[75]

Lophophora williamsii (Peyote)
0.4% Mescaline[76] 3-6% Mescaline[75]
Opuntia acanthocarpa Mescaline[75]

Opuntia basilaris
Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5


Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica
(syn. Opuntia cylindrica)[77]

Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
(syn. Opuntia echinocarpa)
Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%, 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%[75]
Cylindropuntia spinosior
(syn. Opuntia spinosior)[78]
Mescaline 0.00004%, 3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[75]

Echinopsis macrogona
(syn. Trichocereus macrogonus)
> 0.01-0.05% Mescaline[79]

Echinopsis peruviana
(syn. Trichocereus peruvianus)
Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12%[74] Mescaline
Echinopsis tacaquirensis
subsp. taquimbalensis (syn. Trichocereus taquimbalensis)[80]
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[79]
Echinopsis terscheckii
(syn. Trichocereus terscheckii, Trichocereus werdemannianus)[81]
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[79] Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[74]
Echinopsis valida 0.025% Mescaline[76]

[edit] Plants containing beta-carbolines

Beta-carbolines are “reversible” MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own.

Amsonia tabernaemontana Harmine
Aspidosperma exalatum Beta-carbolines[82]
Aspidosperma polyneuron Beta-carbolines[82]

Apocynum cannabinum
Ochrosia nakaiana Harman
Pleicarpa mutica Beta-carbolines[82]



Calycanthus occidentalis





Elaeagnus augustifolia
Harman, etc.

Elaeagnus commutata
Elaeagnus hortensis Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Elaeagnus orientalis Tetrahydroharman
Elaeagnus spinosa Tetrahydroharman
Hippophae rhammoides Harman, etc.

Shepherdia argentea

Shepherdia canadensis


Arundo donax

Festuca arundinacea
Harman, etc.

Lolium perenne

(Perennial Ryegrass)

Harman, etc.
Phalaris aquatica Beta-carbolines[82]
Phalaris arundinacea Beta-carbolines[82]





Banisteriopsis argentia 5-methoxytetrahydroharman, (-)-N(6)-methoxytetrahydroharman, dimethyltryptamine-N(6)-oxide[9]

Banisteriopsis caapi
Harmine 0.31-8.43%,[83] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine,[84] 5-MeO-DMT in bark[85]
Banisteriopsis inebrians Beta-carbolines[82]
Banisteriopsis lutea Harmine, telepathine[9]
Banisteriopsis metallicolor Harmine, telepathine[9]
Banisteriopsis muricata Harmine up to 6%, harmaline up to 4%, plus DMT[86]
Diplopterys cabrerana Beta-carbolines[82]
Cabi pratensis Beta-carbolines[82]
Callaeum antifebrile
(syn. Cabi paraensis)





Meconopsis horridula Beta-carbolines[82]

Meconopsis napaulensis
Meconopsis panuculata Beta-carbolines[82]
Meconopsis robusta Beta-carbolines[82]
Meconopsis rudis Beta-carbolines[82]

Papaver rhoeas


Passiflora actinea Harman

Passiflora alata
Passiflora alba Harman
Passiflora bryonoides Harman

Passiflora caerulea
Passiflora capsularis Harman
Passiflora decaisneana Harman

Passiflora edulis
Harman, 0-7001 ppm[27] in fruit
Passiflora eichleriana Harman

Passiflora foetida

Passiflora incarnata (with bee)
Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.[87] Alkaloids in rind of fruit 0.25%[87]

Passiflora quadrangularis
Passiflora ruberosa Harman
Passiflora subpeltata Harman
Passiflora warmingii Harman




Rutaceae family:




|Vestia foetida



Fagonia cretica
Nitraria schoberi Beta-carbolines[82]

Peganum harmala

(Syrian Rue)

The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of which is harmaline.[88] Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient.
Peganum nigellastrum Harmine[89]

Tribulus terrestris

Zygophyllum fabago
Harman, harmine

[edit] Other psychedelic plants

Salvinorin A
Salvia divinorum Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[90]

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose) Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.

Tabernanthe iboga Ibogaine in root bark[91]

Tabernanthe orientalis Ibogaine in root leaves[91]

Tabernanthe pubescens Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[91]

Tabernaemontana sp. Ibogaine[91]

Trachelospermum jasminoides Ibogaine[92]

Nymphaea caerulea Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer‘s Odyssey.

Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a “divine” essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.

Mitragyna Speciosa Leaves contain mitragynine (thought to be primary psychoactive), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine. (An unusual stimulant and narcotic-like effect reminiscent of caffeine and opium)

Leonotis leonurus Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)

Leonotis nepetifolia Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Active Chemical Unknown Calea zacatechichi Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent.


Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
D-lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid amides in the seeds; up to 0.12% total[93]
Rivea corymbosa Seeds contain D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[94]
Some Mirabilis sp. LSA

Apocynaceae family:

Aquifoliaceae family:

  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca.[96] According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.

Euphorbiaceae family:

Loganaceae family:

Lythraceae family:

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] References

  1. ^Ayahuasca Analogues“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  2. ^ IJ PACHTER, DE ZACHARIAS, O RIBEIRO – The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1959 –
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Trouts Notes on Sacred Cacti
  4. ^Profiles of Psychedelic Drugs“. Retrieved on 200804-19.
  5. ^ a b c d e Bluezoo Tryptamines
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Plants Containing DMT
  7. ^Lycaeum > Leda > Acacia acuminata“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Shaman Australis
  9. ^ a b c d Glasby, John Stephen (1991). Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites. CRC Press, 2. ISBN 0850664233.
  10. ^ English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190
  11. ^ Maya Ethnobotanicals
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Acacia (Polish)
  13. ^ Lycaeum
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer
  16. ^ a b c d e
  17. ^ Duboisia hopwoodii – Pituri Bush – Solanaceae – Central America
  18. ^ Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3855025703 at [1] (German)
  20. ^
  21. ^ Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies
  22. ^ Lycaeum — Acacias and Entheogens
  23. ^ Lycaeum
  24. ^ NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 – 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  25. ^ a b c Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German)
  26. ^ Lycaeum
  27. ^ a b c Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  28. ^ Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  29. ^
  30. ^ Purdue University
  31. ^ a b c Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer, 500. ISBN 3764329793.
  32. ^ a b c
  33. ^Lycaeum > Leda > Acacia floribunda“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  34. ^ a b c d (Swedish)
  35. ^Lycaeum > Leda > Acacia longifolia“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  36. ^
  37. ^ Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies
  38. ^ Plants Containing DMT (German)
  39. ^Acacia campylacantha – Hortipedia“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  40. ^Acacia rigidula – Magiska Molekylers Wiki“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  41. ^ Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas
  42. ^ Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie (APB)
  43. ^ a b c d e f g UNO
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  45. ^ Herbotechnica (Spanish)
  46. ^Bufo alvarius – Jonathan Ott on Bufotenine“. Retrieved on 200802-23.
  47. ^ Psychedelics Encyclopedia By Peter G. Stafford, p. 313.
  48. ^ PubMed
  49. ^ a b Desmanthus (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs)
  50. ^Google Book Search“. Retrieved on 200805-08.
  51. ^Desmodium caudatum information from NPGS/GRIN“. Retrieved on 200805-02.
  52. ^ a b c d Trout’s Notes on Desmodium
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ahAyahuasca Analogues“. Retrieved on 200804-28.
  54. ^ Pharmaceutical-Neutraceutical Bulletin, Final
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