Ancient astronaut theories
Ancient astronaut theories
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ancient astronaut theories are various proposals that the Earth had, before first human record, been visited by intelligent extraterrestrial beings, and that such contact is linked to either the origins or development of human cultures, technologies and/or religions. Indeed, some of these theories suggests that gods from most — if not all — religions are actually extraterrestrial beings, and their technologies were mistaken for divine entities by primitive man. While no peer-reviewed scientific journal validates such claims, these theories have been popularized, particularly in the latter half of the 20th century, by writers Erich von Däniken, Zecharia Sitchin and others.
Ancient astronaut theories also may include the idea that civilization may have evolved on earth twice, and that the visitation of ancient astronauts may reflect the return of descendants of ancient humans whose population was separated from earthbound humans.
Proponents of ancient astronaut theories point to what they perceive as gaps in historical and archaeological records and also what they see as an absence of definitive explanations in certain contexts from the archaeological sciences. Advocates of these theories put forward as evidence their interpretations of various archaeological artifacts, which they deem to have been anachronistic or beyond the presumed technical capabilities of the historical cultures they are associated with (see “OOPArt“). Another common theme relies upon the interpretation of depictions in certain ancient artworks as being representations of actual extraterrestrial visitors as realised by the contacted cultures.
Critics maintain, however, that any gaps in contemporary knowledge of the past do not demonstrate that such speculative ideas are a necessary, or even plausible, conclusion to draw from the available data. A number of ancient astronaut claims are made in direct opposition to the consensus scientific interpretation of evidence and to legitimate scientific explanations. The scientific community remains generally skeptical, and the dominant view is that there is no actual evidence to support ancient astronaut and paleocontact theories.
Ancient astronaut theories may be considered a subset of paleocontact theory, a hypothesis that intelligent extraterrestrials have visited Earth. Carl Sagan, I.S. Shklovskii and Hermann Oberth are three notable scientists who have seriously considered this possibility.
Ancient astronaut adherents often claim that humans are either descendants or creations of beings who landed on Earth millennia ago. An associated theory is that much of human knowledge, religion and culture came from extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times. Ancient astronauts acted as a “mother culture”. These ideas are generally discounted by the scientific community.
|Intelligent extraterrestrials visited the Earth in ancient times and profoundly affected the development of human civilization.|
|Original proponents:||Charles Fort, Erich von Däniken|
|Current proponents:||Robert K. G. Temple, Zecharia Sitchin, Richard C. Hoagland, Burak Eldem, Ellen Lloyd|
Ancient astronaut theories have been advanced by authors such as:
- Charles Fort (1919)
- Morris K. Jessup (1955)
- George Hunt Williamson (1957)
- Peter Kolosimo (in his 1957 book, Il pianeta sconosciuto)
- Henri Lhote (1958),
- Matest M. Agrest (1959)
- Jacques Bergier & Louis Pauwels in their (1959) book, The Morning of the Magicians
- Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1960)
- W. Raymond Drake (1964)
- Brad Steiger (1967) in his book, The Flying Saucer Menace
- Erich von Däniken (1968)
- Robert Charroux (1969)
- Dr. S. Lunskaya (1970)
- Rod Serling in his (1974) documentary In Search of Ancient Astronauts
- Robert K. G. Temple (1976)
- Zecharia Sitchin (1978)
- Maurice Chatelain (1978)
- Richard C. Hoagland
- Burak Eldem
- Alan F. Alford
- Ellen Lloyd
Theosophical writings of the 19th and early 20th centuries contain many precursors to the ancient astronaut theories. Theosophy influenced authors such as H. P. Lovecraft, Charles Fort, and Erich von Däniken.
 Erich von Däniken
Erich von Däniken was a leading proponent of this theory in the late 1960s and early 1970s, gaining a large audience through the 1968 publication of his best-selling book Chariots of the Gods and its sequels. Von Däniken’s evidence for his vision of paleocontact is:
- Certain artifacts and monumental constructions are claimed by von Däniken to have required a more sophisticated technological ability in their construction than what was available to the ancient cultures who constructed them. Von Däniken maintains that these artifacts were constructed either directly by extraterrestrial visitors or by humans who learned the necessary knowledge from said visitors. These artifacts and monuments include Stonehenge, the Moai of Easter Island, the Antikythera mechanism and the Ancient Baghdad Electric Batteries. (See OOPArt)
- Von Däniken claims that ancient art and iconography throughout the world illustrates air and space vehicles, non-human but intelligent creatures, ancient astronauts and artifacts of an anachronistically advanced technology. Von Däniken also claims that geographically separated historical cultures share artistic themes, which he argues imply a common origin. For one such example, refer to von Däniken’s interpretation of the sarcophagus lid recovered from the tomb of the Classic-era Maya ruler of Palenque, Pacal. Von Däniken claimed the design represented a seated astronaut, whereas the iconography and accompanying Maya text clearly identifies it as a portrait of the ruler himself with the World Tree of Maya mythology.
- The origins of many religions are interpreted by von Däniken as reactions to encounters with an alien race. According to his view, humans considered the technology of the aliens to be supernatural and the aliens themselves to be gods. Von Däniken claims that the oral and written traditions of most religions contain references to alien visitors by descriptions of stars and vehicular objects travelling through air and space. The author maintains that these should be seen as literal descriptions from eyewitnesses that have been interpreted by primitive peoples as supernatural events, or changed during the passage of time to become more obscure, rather than symbolic or mythical fiction. One such is Ezekiel‘s revelation in the Old Testament, which Däniken interprets as a detailed description of a landing spacecraft.
Since the publication of von Däniken’s books, no substantial evidence has been found to verify his claims, while much claimed evidence has been disproven.
 Zecharia Sitchin
Zecharia Sitchin‘s series The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The 12th Planet, revolves around Sitchin’s interpretation of ancient Sumerian and Middle Eastern texts, mysterious megalithic sites and anomalous artifacts from around the world. He theorizes the gods of old Mesopotamia were actually astronauts from the planet Nibiru, which the Sumerians believed to be a remote “12th planet” (counting the Sun, Moon, and Pluto as planets) associated with the god Marduk. According to Sitchin, Nibiru continues to orbit our sun on a 3,600-year elongated orbit. Though modern astronomy has yet to find any direct evidence of this hypothetical planet, a number of recent observations of anomalies in the Kuiper belt and cometary trajectories have led some mainstream astronomers to suggest the explanation lies in the existence of a large planetary or stellar body beyond our known solar system . Sitchin also suggests that the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is the shattered remains of the ancient planet “Tiamat” which he claims was destroyed in one of Niburu’s orbits through the solar system.
According to Sitchin, the Sumerians relate how 50 Anunnaki or inhabitants of Nibiru came to Earth approximately 400,000 years ago with the intent of mining raw materials, especially gold, for transport back to Nibiru. With their small numbers they soon tired of the task and set out to genetically engineer laborers to work the mines. After much trial and error they eventually created homo sapiens sapiens: the “Adapa” (model man) or Adam of later mythology. Sitchin claims the Anunnaki were active in human affairs until their culture was destroyed by global catastrophes caused by the abrupt end of the last ice-age some 12,000 years ago. Seeing that humans survived and all they had built was destroyed, from that point he says, “kingship was lowered from heaven to Earth” and the Anunnaki left Earth after giving humans the opportunity and means to govern themselves.
 Robert Temple
Robert K. G. Temple‘s 1976 book, The Sirius Mystery presents a case that the Dogon people of northwestern Mali preserved an ancient account of extraterrestrial visitation around 5,000 years ago. He quotes various lines of evidence, including advanced astronomical knowledge inherited by the tribe, descriptions, and comparative belief systems with ancient civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Sumer. His work draws heavily on the studies of cultural anthropologists, Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen.
His conclusions however, have seen criticism by Carl Sagan and Ian Ridpath, who pointed out discrepancies within Temple’s account, and suggested that the Dogon may have received some of their information recently and probably from European sources. In addition, noted anthropologist and ecologist, Walter E. A. van Beek criticizes Temple’s sources, mainly Griaule, for misrepresenting Dogon ethnography, imposing his own ideas, and fabricating his account. Responding to van Beek’s article, daughter and colleague of Marcel Griaule, Genevieve Calame-Griaule dismissed van Beek’s charges as being marred by a confusion of esoteric traditions and based almost entirely on speculation. van Beek continues to maintain that Griaule was wrong and cites other anthropologists who also reject his work.
Temple responded to his critics by pointing out that certain information, like the density of Sirius B, had only been acquired by Westerners but a few years earlier. He also noted the possible detection of a third star in 1995, of which had already been documented as being incorporated into Dogon mythology. Skeptic and space journalist, James Oberg was cautious in his approach to the information, stating that enthusiasts of Temple’s claims have neither been proven or disproved in their assertions, and while Temple was not able to establish unquestionably the antiquity of most of the information in question, speculative notions of recent attainment from Europeans is “entirely circumstantial”, and concludes that it is likely we will never know for sure and this case may in fact remain a mystery.
 Raëlian religious movement
Raëlism, or Raëlianism, is a religious movement created by Claude Vorilhon (or Raël). Raël claims to have encountered extraterrestrials on a number of occasions. On one such occasion, he claims that he was informed that humans were created by an advanced extraterrestrial humanoid race the Elohim, using their knowledge of DNA & Genetics. The Raëlian movement also argues against evolution and supports human cloning.
 Earlier ideas
Earlier sources — while generally not referencing ancient astronauts per se — suggest the creation of some monuments was beyond human means, such as Saxo Grammaticus‘ suggestion that giants had created Denmark‘s massive dolmens, or in tales that Merlin had assembled Stonehenge via magic.
Another frequent theme that can be encountered in many mythologies is a person who comes from far away as a god, or as the archetype of a “civilizing hero” who brings knowledge to mankind. Prometheus is the best-known Western example. In Native American lore there are numerous examples, including Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs and Viracocha of the Incas.
The cross-cultural similarities of deities coming from the heavens and the manners in which they speak to humans are explained by some as evidence of visitations by extraterrestrial beings. The myths of Gods and Godesses are supposedly real accounts of these visitations. The extraterrestrials are seen as divine due to their technology, which is superior to the point it can only be explained as the “powers” or magic of the God or Goddess by the creators of the deity myths.
 Purported evidence
Proponents cite ancient mythologies to support their viewpoints based on theories that hold that ancient creation myths of a god or gods who descend from the “heavens” to earth to create or instruct man are actually representations of alien visitors, whose superior technology accounts for their reception as gods. Such phenomenon is not unknown in modern times as it has sometimes been the case when isolated cultures are exposed to Western technology. In the early 20th century, “cargo cults” were discovered in the South Pacific; cultures who believed various Western ships and their cargo to be sent from the Gods as fulfillment of prophecies concerning their return . As Arthur C. Clarke surmised in his 1961 book Profiles of the Future, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” 
Flying machines are sometimes mentioned in ancient texts with one example the Vimanas, flying machines that can be found in the Sanskrit epics of India. These tales range from fantastic aerial battles employing various weaponry, to the mundane relating simple technical information, flight procedure, and flights of fancy. (See also Vaimanika Shastra, a text on Vimanas “channeled” in the early 20th century.)
In the Biblical Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel tells of a flying object seen as a fiery whirlwind which when descended to the ground gave the appearance of being made of metal. It is described among other things as a wheel within a wheel containing four occupants, “living creatures”, whose likeness was that of man. The passage goes on to say that wherever the wheels went the creatures went, and when the living creatures were lifted up the wheels were lifted up . The apocryphal Book of Enoch tells of similar flying objects and beings, but goes further in that Enoch is taken on journeys to various corners of the Earth in the object and at one point even travels to the heavens . In several chapters of the Old Testament, the Hebrew God Yaweh is depicted as traveling as a column of smoke and/or fire and making the sound of a trumpet. These descriptions also describe Yahweh as a physical presence, not an abstraction. Yahweh is described raining lightning and stones down upon the enemies of the Hebrews. However, descriptions of the Hebrew God have also featured protecting wings and outstretched arms in the Psalms, features which may be considered contrary to theories of mechanical manifestations of God, but tellingly refers to the different perceptions of their God given the different eras the stories were written .
Physical evidence includes the discovery of ancient “model airplanes” in Egypt and Peru, which are said to be similar to modern planes and gliders, although typically these are interpreted by archaeologists as stylized interpretations of birds.
More support of this theory draws upon what they claim to be flying saucers in medieval and renaissance art. Objects in the paintings that cannot be explained with relevance to the art piece are often assumed to be flying saucers . This is used to support the ancient astronaut theory by attempting to show that the creators of humanity return to check up on their creation throughout time.
Other artistic support for the ancient astronaut theory has been sought in Palaeolithic cave paintings. Vondijina in Australia and Val Camonica in Italy (seen above) are claimed to bear a resemblance to present day astronauts. Supporters of the ancient astronaut theory sometimes claim that similarities such as dome shaped heads, interpreted as beings wearing space helmets, prove that early man was visited by an extraterrestrial race.
For a short while in 1968-1969 the Colorado Air Force Academy had an elective course which, in an unpublished text included a chapter on UFOs, which was removed in the Fall of 1970 after Project Blue BOok concluded “there has been no evidence indicating that sightings categorized as ‘unidentified’ are extraterrestrial vehicles.” “
The ancient Nazca lines comprise hundreds of enormous ground drawings etched into the high desert landscape of Peru which consist primarily of geometric shapes, but also include depictions of a variety of animals and at least one human Many supporters of this theory cite the Nazca lines as evidence because the figures created by the lines are most clearly depicted or only able to be seen when viewed from the air. Writing professor Joe Nickell of the University of Kentucky, using only technology he believed to be available to people of the time, was able to recreate one of the larger figures with a reasonable degree of accuracy .
 Difficulties of building and moving megaliths
Evidence for ancient astronauts is purported to include such ancient monuments and megalithic ruins as the Giza pyramids of Egypt, Machu Picchu in Peru, or Baalbek in Lebanon among others . Supporters contend these structures could not have been built with the limited technical abilities or tools of the people of the time and argue as well that many could not be duplicated even today. They suggest it is not only the unwieldy size of the stones, but also the precision they were laid and great distances many were transported which leaves the question open as to who could have possibly built them. While these contentions are categorically rejected by mainstream archeology, regardless of their origin, mysteries still remain as to how and why such structures were built. Such allegations are not unique in history, however, as similar reasoning lay behind the wonder of the Cyclopean masonry walling at Mycenaean cities in the eyes of Greeks of the following “Dark Age,” who believed that the giant Cyclopes had built the walls. As well as aliens, other candidates for the lost civilizations that taught or provided these skills are the pseudo-historical lost continents of Atlantis, Lemuria and Mu.
 Easter Island
Challenging the idea that the transporting of huge megaliths by ancient man was beyond their capabilities, archaeologists at Easter Island have attempted to demonstrate how people with stone age technology could have moved small megaliths short distances like some of the Easter Island Moai. The poured concrete Moai used in the demonstration weighed approximately 6 tons and was lifted onto the sled by modern crane, but was able to be moved with rollers several meters and erected upright. Actual Moai, however, weigh on average 12.5 metric tons with the largest erected being 74.4 metric tons.
 Baalbek Lebanon
The three largest megalithic stones at Baalbek which together are referred to as the “Trilithon”, are the largest stones quarried by man and are estimated to weigh 500 tons each with an even larger fourth stone still lying in the quarry over 1/2 of a mile away . The three stones sit on top of a wall nearly 26ft high, slightly lower than the quarry, comprised of similar stones weighing between 50-500 tons.
Other than the proponents’ own interpretations of ancient writings and artifacts, there has yet to be found any hard evidence to support the ancient astronaut hypothesis.
Alan F. Alford, author of “Gods of the New Millennium”, (1996) is an adherent of the ancient astronaut theory. Much of his work draws on Sitchin’s theories. However, he does admit to some faults in Sitchin’s theory after deeper analysis. “I am now firmly of the opinion that these gods personified the falling sky; in other words, the descent of the gods was a poetic rendition of the cataclysm myth which stood at the heart of ancient Near Eastern religions.” (Alford)(see Fermi Paradox).
 Ancient astronauts in fiction and arts
The ancient astronaut theory has been addressed frequently in science fiction and horror fiction, especially in TV and film, as human-like aliens are usually easier to cast and cheaper to clothe. Early occurrences in the genres include:
 Novels and comics
- H. P. Lovecraft‘s The Call of Cthulhu (1926) and At the Mountains of Madness (1931).
- Kurt Vonnegut‘s The Sirens of Titan (1959) depicts the whole of human development and civilization to be a medium used by aliens for relaying messages to an alien space-explorer stranded on one of Saturn‘s moons.
- The March 1961 issue of Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact contains a piece by Arthur W. Orton entitled “The Four-Faced Visitors of Ezekiel”. Although described in the magazine’s Table of Contents as a short story, it actually takes the form of a pseudo-factual essay presenting a verse-by-verse analysis of Ezekiel’s vision and interpreting this in terms of an encounter with ancient astronauts. In this respect the essay mirrors J. F. Blumrich’s book The Spaceships of Ezekiel (1974), although predating it by more than a decade.
- In Larry Niven‘s Known Space (1964-present), humanity is descended from aliens called the Pak.
- Arthur C. Clarke has written several stories utilizing the theme, most famously in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).
- The Tintin adventure Flight 714 (1968) references ancient astronaut theories.
- Philip K. Dick explores this theory in his VALIS trilogy. A race of ancient astronauts is thought to have placed an information-streaming satellite in orbit around Earth.
- Douglas Adams used a satirical version of the theory in his Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy series (1979-1992).
- Buzz Aldrin‘s and John Barnes‘ novel, Encounter With Tiber (1996), deals with the discovery of ancient alien encounters on Earth and Mars, with humanity utilizing recovered alien technology to advance the space program.
- In David Brin‘s Uplift Universe series, all known species were brought to sapience through the direct intervention of a known galactic “patron,” except for the fabled first sentient species, the Progenitors, and humanity. While most humans take pride at achieving space travel without a patron, some humans (called Danikenites, after Erich von Däniken) and most Galactics believe otherwise.
- The novel The Sky People states that an ancient race of aliens populated Earth, Mars, and Venus with human and animal life.
- In William H. Keith, Jr.‘s “Heritage Trilogy,” a war between the United States and a United Europe (and later between the United States and China) has its roots in the discovery that ancient astronaunts visited Earth on several occasions. Ancient technology found on Mars, the Moon and Europa change the balance of power on Earth.
- In Walter Ernsting‘s The Day the Gods Died, an extraterrestrial civilization built the ruins of ancient Peru.
- The Marvel comic series The Eternals deals with robotic aliens (the Celestials) who had advanced the evolution of apes into man, as well as two sister races, the Eternals and the Deviants, who resembled “gods” and “demons” respectively.
- Yoshiki Takaya’s manga series Bio-Booster Armor Guyver, later adapted several times into animated form and twice into a pair of americanized films, featured the idea that all life on earth was created by an organization of various alien beings as biological weapons intended for use in interstellar war, which were later abandoned for reasons unknown, and thus were never taken into space. According to the series, human beings are actually a ‘first stage’ organism that can be further mutated into monstrous creatures called Zoanoids, which supposedly account for many modern day myths of vampires and werewolves. The comic features an alien armor supposedly used by the aliens themselves which remains on Earth and is possessed by a highschooler. One of the principal characters, the most highly advanced living weapon, fears the aliens return and plans to take mankind out into space to find a means to confront the aliens on their own terms.
- In Jon Stewart‘s Naked Pictures of Famous People the section “The Recipe” claims to be a translation of an ancient Aztec text from 2000 BC depicting a celebrity awards ceremony. In the context of the book, Erich Von Daniken brought it to the world’s attention in his book Weird, Huh? wondering if ancient alien visitors had brought knowledge of celebrity awards shows to the Aztecs.
 Movies and television series
- Nigel Kneale‘s Quatermass and the Pit television serial (1958-1959) used a version of the idea.
- The BBC, Doctor Who serial Pyramids of Mars (1975) featured a conflict on Earth between aliens of a race named the Osirans forming the basis of Egyptian mythology, and a number of other Doctor Who serials had used similar ideas.
- The original Battlestar Galactica and the 2003 remake depicts humans as having originated on a distant planet and formed thirteen colonies, Earth being the last and most distant. The plots of both concern a group of humans attempting to find Earth. The original 1978 series is more closely linked to the Ancient Astronaut theory, using modernized versions of ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Middle Ages costumes, as well as mixing ancient myths and religious materials into the storylines. In contrast, the SCI-FI Channel’s 2003 remake deals little with ancient myths and legends and depicts an American-like culture, although the religion, which is similar to the Greek religion, is prominent among some characters.
- The French animated TV series Il était une fois… l’Espace (1982) (English: Once Upon a Time… Space) featured far-future humans taking on the role of superior aliens to a caveman culture. The spaceships of the human civilization also used decorative iconography derived from the Nazca lines as a wink to the theory – the ship of the main characters using a hummingbird design.
- The TV show The X-Files (1993-2002) has borrowed the theory.
- The movie Stargate (1994) and its spin-off television series Stargate SG-1 (1997-2007) and Stargate Atlantis (2004-present) feature aliens called the Ancients (alternatively Alterans, Lanteans, or Anqueetas) who are found to have traveled to Earth millions of years ago to start and influence human evolution; and the sinister Goa’uld, who posed as gods; and the benevolent Asgard, who also posed as gods.
- The Stargate: Ultimate Edition: Director’s Cut DVD includes a featurette interview with Erich von Däniken entitled “Is there a Stargate?”.
- A 1996 episode of the animated series Gargoyles involves an ancient alien living in a hidden spaceship under Easter Island. In the episode it is concluded that this alien came to Earth long ago and inspired Moai statues which Easter Island is famous for.
- In Star Trek, the Ancient humanoids seeded the galaxy with humanoid life. The episode Plato’s Stepchildren also uses this theme.
- In the Star Trek: Voyager episode Tattoo, we learn that Chakotay is descended from the Rubber Tree People who were visited by Sky Spirits 45,000 years ago. The Sky Spirits, who are actually advanced, space-faring aliens, granted these primitive humans a genetic alteration which influenced their development.
- Lilith and Adam in the manga/anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion were two extraterrestrial beings that landed on Earth and gave birth to humanity.
- While not specifically using Earth as an example, the fictional Star Wars universe has many references to aliens giving primitive races technology, or humans de-advancing into a more primitive society as time passes.
- The film Ice Age briefly shows an alien spacecraft trapped in ice during the Ice Age.
- One of the Spriggan chapters depicts Tezcatlipoca as an ancient astronaut during a mission in Mexico.
- In the Babylon 5 universe, many of the First Ones, and in particular the Vorlons and Shadows, visited Earth (and the homeworlds of other races) at various times in history.
- The predator (Yautja) alien race from the movie Alien vs. Predator is described in the film as having traveled to earth at a prehistoric time and having a culture serve them as Gods.
- In the television show Dilbert, Dilbert and Dogbert visit a museum with an exhibit supporting the theory of aliens assisting the Egyptians in the construction of the Pyramid. After Dilbert asks what happened to the aliens after the pyramids were constructed, they move to the next exhibit depicting the Egyptians feasting on the aliens.
- In Frederik Pohl‘s Gateway series of novels, the Heechee are described as an ancient alien race that visited our solar system thousands of years ago. They left behind a variety of futuristic technology, which creates many interesting opportunities for Earth.
- The Futurama episode “A Pharaoh to Remember” features an alien culture that claims to have been taught space travel, mummification and pyramid building by the ancient Egyptians.
- In the cartoon The Flintstones, Fred is sometimes accompanied by Gazoo, a little green space man with many amazing powers.
- Monty Python‘s Life of Brian includes a chase sequence where Brian briefly escapes from Roman legionaries by accidentally falling into an alien spaceship.
- The idea of paleocontact appears in numerous science fiction stories and films, most notably, in the first scene of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.
- The Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay borrowed heavily from the Ancient Astronauts Theory for its background, having the technologically-advanced Slann visit the game world in its infancy and experimenting with its lifeforms.
- The Halo video game series makes numerous allusions to a Forerunner civilization responsible for the construction of the ancient but unbelievably advanced rings that are the namesake of the game, as well as humanity itself. Many theorys indicate that the Humans themselves may be Forerunners.
- The computer game Rise of Legends features the Cuotl, a Pre-Columbian mesoamerican civilisation manipulated by a group of aliens whose spaceship crashed.
- The tabletop battle game Warhammer Fantasy Battle also uses aspects of the Ancient Astronaut Theory. The race of Lizardmen was created by the so-called Old Ones in an attempt to fight Chaos.
- The RPG Chrono Trigger from Squaresoft depicts the final boss Lavos as an Ancient Astronaut.
- In the 1998 computer game, Battlezone, Greek mythology emerged through visits from an alien civilisation.
- The RPG Illusion of Time draws considerable inspiration from the ancient astronaut theory.
- Clover Studio’s Okami contains Dogu-based enemies as well as featuring Ancient Astronauts majorly in the game’s plot and conclusion.
- BioWare‘s Mass Effect for the Xbox 360 references the Protheans having some contact and interaction with prehistoric human beings.
- Chris de Burgh’s A Spaceman Came Travelling deals with the concept of an ancient astronaut, in this case pertaining to the Christ story.
- Frank Zappa‘s “Inca Roads” (from the album One Size Fits All) deals with Ancient Astronaut Theory. The primary lyric is “Did a vehicle come from somewhere out there just to land in the Andes? Was it round, and did it have a motor, or was it something different? Did a vehicle fly along the mountain and find a place to park itself, or did someone build a place to leave a space for such a thing to land?”
 See also
- OOPArts – “out of place artifacts,” found in very unusual or seemingly impossible locations
- Pseudoarchaeology – pseudoscientific archaeology
- List of pseudosciences and pseudoscientific concepts
- Raëlism – an ancient astronaut/UFO religion founded in 1970s
- Robert K. G. Temple – author of The Sirius Mystery, a book exploring extraterrestrial contact by the Dogon people
- Xenoarchaeology – archaeology of the physical remains of past alien cultures, mainly in science fiction
- Charroux, Robert (1974). Masters of the world. Berkley Pub. Corp. ASIN B0006WIE1O.
- Däniken, Erich von (1972). Chariots of the Gods. Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 0-425-16680-5.
- Grünschloß, Andreas (June 2006). ““Ancient Astronaut” Narrations: A Popular Discourse on Our Religious Past” (PDF). Marburg Journal of Religion 11 (1). ISSN 1612-2941.
- Raël (1974). The Message Given by Extra-terrestrials. Nova Dist. ISBN 2-940252-20-3.
- Sitchin, Zecharia (1999). The 12th Planet (The Earth Chronicles, Book 1). Avon. ISBN 0-380-39362-X.
- ^ Lieb, Michael (1998). Children of Ezekiel: Aliens, Ufos, the Crisis of Race, and the Advent of End Time. Duke University Press, p.250. ISBN 0-8223-2268-4.
- ^ (1961) Cithara. St. Bonaventure University, p.12.
- ^ Von Däniken, Erich (1984). Chariots of the Gods. Berkley Pub Group. ISBN 0-4250-7481-1.
- ^ Winners of the Ig® Nobel Prize. Retrieved on May 18, 2007.
- ^ Winners of the Ig® Nobel Prize. Retrieved on May 18, 2007.
- ^ http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/L/Lhote.html
- ^ Erich von Daniken’s Chariots of the Gods: Science or Charlatanism?, Robert Sheaffer. First published in the “NICAP UFO Investigator”, October/November, 1974. http://www.debunker.com/texts/vondanik.html
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothetical_planetary_object
- ^ Temple, Robert K. G., The Sirius Mystery, 1976. ISBN 0 09 925744 0
- ^ Sagan, Carl, Broca’s Brain, published by Random House, Inc. in 1974
- ^ Investigating the Sirius “Mystery” – Skeptical Inquirer (1978) Ian Ridpath
- ^ Walter E. A. van Beek: “Dogon Restudied: A Field Evaluation of the Work of Marcel Griaule.” Current Anthropology, 32 (1991): 139-167.
- ^ Genevieve Calame-Griaule: “On the Dogon Restudied.” Current Anthropology, Vol. 32, No. 5 (Dec., 1991), pp. 575-577
- ^ van Beek, Walter E.A., “Haunting Griaule: Experiences from the Restudy of the Dogon” History in Africa, Vol. 31. (2004), pp. 43-68.
- ^ Benest, D., & Duvent, J. L. (1995) “Is Sirius a triple star?”. Astronomy and Astrophysics 299: 621-628
- ^ Temple, Robert K. G. The Sirius Mystery: New Scientific Evidence of Alien Contact 5,000 Years Ago. New York: St. Destiny Books (1998)
- ^ James Oberg, “Chapter 6, The Sirius Mystery“, in UFOs and Outer Space Mysteries, (1982) Donning Press
- ^ http://www.afa.org/magazine/1991/0191cargo.asp
- ^ http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/776.html
- ^ David Hatcher Childress (The Anti-Gravity Handbook)
- ^ King James Red Letter edition 1944, Ezekiel 1:1–28
- ^ Book of Enoch Together with a Reprint of Greek Fragments (1912) ISBN 1-56459-523-4
- ^ Exodus 13:21
- ^ Exodus 19:16–19
- ^ Numbers 35:34
- ^ 2 Samuel 22:10–16
- ^ Joshua 10:10–11
- ^ God: a Biography, Jack Miles 1996 ISBN-10: 0679743685
- ^ Wikipedia Baghdad Battery article: “On MythBusters episode 29 (which aired on March 23, 2005), the Baghdad battery “myth” was put to the test… For the religious experience aspect of the batteries, a replica of the fabled Ark of the Covenant was constructed, complete with two angels (resembling Adam and Jamie). Instead of linking the angels’ golden wings to the low power batteries, an electric fence generator was connected. When touched, the wings produced a strong feeling of tightness in the chest. Although the batteries themselves had not been used, it was surmised that, due to the apparent lack of knowledge of electricity of ancient people, any form of unusual sensation from them could equate to the “divine presence” in the eyes of ancient people.
- ^ Wikipedia article on Urim and Thummim: “According to the teachings of Judaism, a small parchment with God’s holy name, the Tetragrammaton, inscribed on it was slipped into an opening under the Urim and Thummim on the high priest’s breast plate, which caused the breastplate to “glow” and thereby “transmit messages” from God to the Children of Israel.”
- ^ http://farshores.org/a06ark.htm
- ^ http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_7.htm
- ^ http://sprezzatura.it/Arte/Arte_UFO_5_eng.htm
- ^ http://www.etcontact.net/AncientAstronauts.htm
- ^ http://www.cufon.org/cufon/afu.htm
- ^ http://www.crystalinks.com/nazca.html
- ^ http://www.onagocag.com/nazca.html
- ^ http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/lebanon/baalbek.htm
- ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/easter/
- ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/easter/
- ^ http://everything2.com/index.pl?node=moai
- ^ Coulton, J. J., “Lifting in Early Greek Architecture” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 94. (1974), pp. 1-19.
- ^ http://www.eridu.co.uk/Author/human_origins/ancient_astronauts.html
 Further reading
- Avalos, Hector (2002) “The Ancient Near East in Modern Science Fiction: Zechariah Sitchin’s The 12th Planet as Case Study.” Journal of Higher Criticism, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49-70.
- Harris, Christie (1975) Sky Man on the Totem Pole? New York: Atheneum.
 External links
- UFOs and Art
- Ancient Astronaut Group on YouTube
- Center for Ancient Astronaut Research
- Erich von Däniken Homepage
- Annual Ancient Astronaut Theory Forum
- Von Daniken’s Maya Astronaut
- Robby D. Duncan’s “12th Planet”
- Aurora Paradox
- Aliens in Cryptozoology
- EARS: Evidence of Alien contact Revealed in Scripture
- Ellen Lloyd’s Ancient Astronauts
- SitchinIsWrong.com addressing flaws in the writings of Zecharia Sitchin
- Statements about Flying Saucers and Extraterrestrial Life made by Hermann Oberth(Redirects to MUFON.org).
- ‘Fringe’ or ‘cult’ archaeology examined by professional archaeologist Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews
- Previously undocumented alien encounters
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- March 16, 2008 / 2:51 am